APPRIS: selecting functionally important isoforms


APPRIS ( is a well-established database housing annotations for protein isoforms for a range of species. APPRIS selects principal isoforms based on protein structure and function features and on cross-species conservation. Most coding genes produce a single main protein isoform and the principal isoforms chosen by the APPRIS database best represent this main cellular isoform. Human genetic data, experimental protein evidence and the distribution of clinical variants all support the relevance of APPRIS principal isoforms. APPRIS annotations and principal isoforms have now been expanded to 10 model organisms. In this paper we highlight the most recent updates to the database. APPRIS annotations have been generated for two new species, cow and chicken, the protein structural information has been augmented with reliable models from the EMBL-EBI AlphaFold database, and we have substantially expanded the confirmatory proteomics evidence available for the human genome. The most significant change in APPRIS has been the implementation of TRIFID functional isoform scores. TRIFID functional scores are assigned to all splice isoforms, and APPRIS uses the TRIFID functional scores and proteomics evidence to determine principal isoforms when core methods cannot.

Nucleic Acids Research